Formulation of an exposure index to motor vehicle generated atmospheric pollution for use in epidemiological studies


Type de document
Résumé / Abstract
Air pollution generated by motor vehicle traffic is a major problem for the urban environment, especially since certain pollutants such as benzene and paths are acknowledged as having carcinogenic effects. Consequently, the subject appears to require epidemiological studies. An exposure index is proposed which permits the classification of individuals as a function of a dose cumulated over a given time. This will enable analysis of correlation with pathological effects. The calculation of an exposure index for motor vehicle generated atmospheric pollution requires a good definition of pollutant emissions and accurate knowledge of the mechanisms of transfer by advection of pollutants and their dispersion in built-up areas. This study proposes the use of current theoretical and experimental knowledge to develop a calculation algorithm for this index. The report therefore presents an analysis of epidemiological requirements as well as the constraints related to the acquisition of data by surveys. A model for estimating the mean annual concentrations of motor vehicle primary exhaust pollutants for each place of residence is then developed. It takes into account the geometric environment, the emission levels and the distributions of wind speed and direction. The CALINE3 model is used for open spaces near roads and highways. OSPM, a Danish model, is used for processing roads in the form of canyons.

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